The Roman Catholic Church was the largest landowner in the country and enjoyed special exemptions in property acquisition, and land owned by the Roman Catholic Church was exempt from land reform.

The white and gold Vatican flag was regularly flown at all major public events in South Vietnam, and Diệm dedicated his country to the Virgin Mary in 1959.


Corvée has existed in modern and ancient Egypt, ancient Rome, China and Japan, everywhere in continental Europe, the Incan civilization, Haiti under Henri Christophe and under American occupation of Haiti (1915–1934), and Portugal’s African colonies until the mid-1960s. Forms of statute labour existed until recent times in the United States and still exist in Canada.


The corvée arguably differs from forced labor in that the work obligation was intermittent and for a limited period of time:

Typically only a certain number of days’ work each year. Unlike other forms of levy, such as a tithe, the corvée does not require the population to have land, crops or cash and thus it tends to be favored in economies where money is in short supply.

Corvée - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John F. Kennedy said in reference to a photograph of Duc on fire, “No news picture in history has generated so much emotion around the world as that one.” Malcolm Browne won a Pulitzer Prize for his photograph of the monk’s death.

Quang Duc’s act increased international pressure on Diệm and led him to announce reforms with the intention of mollifying the Buddhists. However, the promised reforms were not implemented, leading to a deterioration in the dispute. With protests continuing, the ARVN Special Forces loyal to Diệm’s brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, launched nationwide raids on Buddhist pagodas, seizing Quang Duc’s heart and causing deaths and widespread damage. Several Buddhist monks followed Quang Duc’s example, also immolating themselves. Eventually, an Army coup toppled Diệm, who was assassinated on 2 November 1963.

Infinite Light

Thích Quảng Đức, a Vietnamese Mahāyāna monk who famously burned himself to death in an act of protest, said the nianfo as his last words immediately before death. He sat in the lotus position, rotated a string of wooden prayer beads, and recited the words “Nam Mô A Di Đà Phật” before striking the match and dropping it on himself.


The term nembutsu-ban is applied to the event in Kyoto, Japan in 1207 where Hōnen and his followers were banned from the city and forced into exile. This occurred when the leaders of older schools of Buddhism persuaded the civil authorities to prohibit the newer practices including the recitation of Namu Amida Butsu. The ban was lifted in 1211.


Sacred Water Lotus - Nelumbo nucifera
Nelumbo nucifera (Proteales - Nelumbonaceae), is an aquatic perennial native to Asia (Iran to Japan), and northern Australia. It is commonly called The Sacred Water Lotus, in reference to the sacred and symbolic status the flower holds in Buddhism and Hinduism.
This plant is a large-flowered lotus that typically grows 3-6’ tall in shallow water and spreads by thickened rhizomes rooted in the mud. Its flowers are large, cupped, fragrant, and pink or white in color. Each flower blooms for about three days, opening in the morning and closing at night each day. Flowers are followed by nut-like fruits that are imbedded in the flat surface of a receptacle. The rhizomes, leaves and seeds of lotus are edible and are sometimes used in Asian cooking; they are also used in traditional medicine.
Other common names: Indian Lotus, Sacred lotus.
References: [1] - [2]
Photo credit: ©Nobuhiro Suhara | Locality: Kyoto-shi, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan (2014)

Coyamito Agate Pseudomorph | ©Uwe Reier
Rancho Coyamito Norte, Mexico (2013).
Pseudomorphs in agate are quite rare but do occur in nodular agates from various locations, usually as a calcite or aragonite replacement.